Some of the cities, towns, and places in Callaway County are Auxvasse, Bachelor, Bourbon, Boydsville, Caldwell, Callaway, Calwood, Carrington, Cedar, Cedar City, Cleveland, Concord, Cote Sans Dessein, Dixie, Earl, East Fulton, Fulton, Guthrie, Hams Prairie, Hatton, Hereford, Holts Summit, Jackson, Jefferson City, Kingdom City, Lake Mykee Town, Liberty, McCredie, Millersburg, Mokane, New Bloomfield, Nine Mile Prairie, Portland, Readsville, Reform, Round Prairie, Shamrock, St. Aubert, Steedman, Stephens, Summit, Tebbetts, Toledo, Wainwright, West Fulton, Williamsburg, Youngers, Yucatan
Callaway County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2020 United States Census, the county's population was 44,283. Its county seat is Fulton. With a border formed by the Missouri River, the county was organized November 25, 1820, and named for Captain James Callaway, grandson of Daniel Boone. The county has been historically referred to as "The Kingdom of Callaway" after an incident in which some residents confronted Union troops during the U.S. Civil War.Callaway County is part of the Jefferson City, Missouri, Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Vineyards and wineries were first established in the area by German immigrants in the mid-19th century. Among the first mentioned in county histories are those around the southeastern Callaway settlement of Heilburn, a community neighboring Portland, on the Missouri River. Since the 1960s, there has been a revival of winemaking there and throughout Missouri.
The Callaway Nuclear Generating Station is located in Callaway County, near Fulton.